Thursday, November 21, 2013

DESIGN MANIFESTO


Alfredo Triff


Within the last ten years the phenomenon of design has exploded1. First, there is “the Bilbao effect” and its conspicuous byproduct, the “starchitect” (with brand names, such as Gehry, Koolhaas, de Meuron, Hadid, Libeskind et. al.). They are a galvanizing force behind de$$ign’s vicious cycle of manufacture, distribution and consumption. Articles like Newsweek’s “The Design Dozen” and Time Magazine’s “Design 100” with a list of “virtuosos,” have further legitimized de$$ign’s new stars.

De$ign is presented as business news in Design Week, or as avant-garde cultural activity in Wallpaper. Magazines like Casabella, Dwell, Interior Design and Experimenta, display hundreds of color-saturated photos of the most-up-to-date artifacts and gadgets positioned in sumptuous settings. There is a plethora of TV home-improvement shows representing design as a process of decision-making and implementation. To boot, there are design fairs and car and boat shows, advertising the technological miracles of global post-capitalism.


Few professions in the post-industrialized world have grown in terms of economic presence and cultural import as de$$ign has in the past decade. De$$ign has moved into academia, with scholastic journals and conference circuits, and has shaped interdisciplinary areas where art, anthropology, ethnography and technology converge.2


For a moment, let’s put aside de$$ign’s undeniable clout and global mystique. Let’s forget the extraordinary seduction of its cultural rituals and its libidinal enchantment. Is it possible that this explosion of de$$ign represents, as Barry Bergdoll, Chief Curator of Design at MoMA puts it, “a sophisticated technique of marketing more than the horizons of new knowledge? 


Why not see de$$ign as a corporate strategy to plan and execute urban environments, profitable use of technologies and the proliferation of communication information?

CONTRA DE$$IGN

* De$$ign has become surface, its products immaterial, informational and entertaining; a spectacle, which is key to post-capitalist consumption.3

* You thought de$$ign was unbiased? De$$ign expresses not real needs but desire.4
* We’re living through a de$$ign impasse.5
* Though de$$ign keeps morphing from “metaphysical” to “symbolic” to “artistic” to “functional” to “spectacle,” it cannot keep up with the futuristic ideology of capitalism.6
* De$$ign’s policy of “planned obsolescence” is obsolete.7
* De$$ign's shortermism pollutes the planet.8

* De$$ign discourse -and practice- is viciously circular.9
* De$$ign lives in a constant state of aesthetic fetishism.10
* De$$ign keeps promising what cannot deliver.11
* Can de$$ign confront its self-deception and fix itself? 12

FOR DESIGN

* De$$ign can transform itself, not by a revolution from within, but by piecemeal increments.13
* De$$ign becomes design when it manufactures cleaner, energy-efficient, quieter, smart, safe, lasting, and aesthetically-appealing products.14
* Design has to be sustainable by applying lessons from the biology of natural systems to the design of environments for the people.15
* The design profession needs more women designers.16
* Designers should be proactive and environmentally committed.17
* Design needs to become emotional, diverse and enhancing.18
* Designers can -and should- explore traditional materials intelligently.19
* Design can help consumers alter our present ecological imbalance.20
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1 “De$$ign,” as opposed to “design,” the former a loaded term, which betrays the very principles on which it was founded by the pioneers of the Arts and Crafts Movement.
2 Only in Europe by the end of the 1990’s there were around 62,000 design students specializing in universities where over 900 courses were available. Netherland Design Institute, Design Across Europe (1998). China has seen a 23% increase in enrollment in art and design between 2001-2003.
3To consume: To make away with or destroy; to waste or squander; to use up. The First World consumes 3 times more and 10 times more energy than the Third World. Our appetite for wood and minerals is partially responsible for the clearing of the Amazon forest. Our processed fuel burns ¾ of the sulfur and nitrogen oxides that cause acid rain. Our countries’ factories generate most of the world’s hazardous chemical wastes and more than 96% of the world's radioactive waste. Our air conditioners, aerosol sprays, and factories release almost 90% of the chlorofluorocarbons that destroy the earth's protective ozone layer. Isn’t this post-industrial de$$ign program perverse?
4Advertising (i.e. graphic de$$ign) plays a crucial role in consumerism by mediating between manufacturers, retailers and the public. Advertisements provide goods with a context (usually mythical). Richard Bolton explains: “We’re inundated with a parade of spectacles (…) these do not merely distract us from crisis and conflict: they absorb the conflict.” Richard Bolton, “Architecture and Cognac” in Design After Modernism, 1989.
5In this sense (post) post-modernism differs from its predecessor only in that our present stage is (according to critic Jean Baudrillard) “more obscene.” Italian philosopher Antonio Gramsci has a similar point: “The crisis consists in the fact that the old is dying and the new cannot be born; in this interregnum a great variety of morbid symptoms appear.” Perry Anderson’s “Modernity and Revolution,” New Left Review, 144, London, 1984.
6According to Marshall Berman in All That is Solid Melts into Air, the problem with futuristic modernism is that brilliant machines and mechanical systems play all the leading roles so, there is little left to human agency.
7Designer George Nelson pronounced the principle in 1956: “What we need is more obsolescence.” Industrial Design, No. 6 (1956). Harley Earl, father of the “dream car” agreed. His motto: “Our job is to hasten obsolescence.”
8Professor Alisdair Fuad-Luke proposes that de$$ign should temporarily put economic factors to one side while reconsidering the contemporary role of design in meeting the real needs of people and the environment. Fuad-Luke defends “slow design” as a means to refocus on anthropocentric (individual + socio-cultural community) and environmental welfare. Alastair Fuad-Luke, ecoDesign: The Sourcebook (Chronicle Books, 2006).
9De$$ign has gotten so entangled with advertising that it advertises itself. What can be expected of the design practice when after a De$$ign show at MoMA, one can buy the same relic being exhibited at the museum’s de$$ign store? In addition, much of the history of modern design has been written and disseminated to support De$$ign. The heroes (mostly men) create products for a largely uninformed public. Nikolaus Pevsner’s Pioneers of the Modern Movement (1936) established the canon of the discipline. The superstar designers’ profiles we read about in magazines follow this sort of pevsnerist heroic rhetoric.
10In his Critique of Commodity Aesthetics (University of Minnesota, 1986), Wolfgang Fritz Haug argues that artifacts in the market “promise a use-value once they are sold,” i.e., they have to appear useful before they actually are. There is a deeper aesthetic anesthetization when use-value becomes beautiful. Take Philippe Stark’s Juicy Salif, a lemon squeezer, which sells for almost $80, which according to its designer, “is not such a good lemon squeezer, but that’s not its only function.” Juicy Salif’s other -and most important function- is aesthetic fetishism.
11“At present, most Asians see First World technology and consumerism as handmaidens of design and harbingers of modernity: They hope to implement this combination of their soils and achieve comparable results.” This is the impending problem of China’s development and the danger it poses (given its size) for the rest of the world. “Design, Development and Cultural Legacies,” Rajeshwari Ghose, in The Idea of Design, by Victor Margolin and Richard Buchanan, MIT, 1995.
12The major deception of de$$ign lies in the constant deferral of a serious political, ecological and historical investigation of its practice.
13This manifesto sets a midway course between self-indulgence and radicalism. It follows professors Karl Popper and Hilary Putnam’s idea of “social engineering,” i.e., the gradual changing our socio-political landscape by trial-and-error. It seems a better method than Modernism’s grandiose sweeping measures.
14This is the general premise behind books such as E.F. Schumacher’s Small is Beautiful, Victor Papanek’s Design for the Real World and Citizen Designer: Perspectives on Design Responsibility by Steven Heller and Veronique Vienne.
15Sustainable design (which can be applied to any structure) should bring building design, energy efficiency, indoor environmental quality, material selection; site planning, resource efficiency, and water use to boost energy savings. Sustainable, low-impact materials: i.e., nontoxic, recycled and recyclable, renewable, local, standard sizes, durable, and long lasting. See Chapter 2 of Nigel Whiteley’s Design For Society (Reaktion Books, 1993).
16When women design products, they are sometimes radically different from those made by men. For instance, research done on women’s criteria for car design reveals emphasis on function, ergonomics and safety (this is at odds with the advertised status of the male ego). “The Forgotten Dimension: Women, Design and Manufacture,” Margaret Bruce, Feminist Art News, (December, 1985).
17We face the crime in urban neighborhoods and communities, the loss of biological diversity, the damage to fragile landscapes, urban sprawl, polluted air, acid rain, noise pollution, global warming, the destruction of an extensive national railway system, and distortion of American political life by an automobile lobby, the foreign policy consequences of dependence on imported oil.
18Design is seen here an opportunity to enhance the human spirit. Team ZOO/ Atelier ZÖ: Theories and Manifestos of Contemporary Architecture, edited by Carl Jencks and Karl Kropf (Academy Editions, 1999).
19Here are some examples: The LifeStraw, designed to turn any surface water into drinking water, used in Ghana, Nigeria, Pakistan and Uganda. 2- The Pot-in-Pot Cooler, a small earthenware pot nestling inside a larger one with wet sand filling the space in between, used in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea and Ethiopia. 3- One Laptop Per Child, a not-profit initiative led by Nicholas Negroponte of MIT Media Lab. Now being tested in Nigeria and Brazil, costing $150. 4- The Global Village Shelter, prefabricated in biodegradable material, shipped flat and requiring no tools to assemble. It has already provided emergency shelter for disaster victims in Afghanistan, Grenada, Pakistan, and for those of Hurricane Katrina in the US.
20200,000 hectares of what used to be the untouched cloud forest of the Peruvian Amazon (once home to a unique highland ecosystem roamed by jaguars and bears), now boasts the herbicide-poisoned heartland of the world’s cocaine industry. “Snorting Peru’s Rain Forest,” International Wildlife, May/June 1990.

Friday, May 3, 2013

tx for the company

urs fischer, in dubio pro reo, 2007

see you around. long live design!

Thursday, April 25, 2013

Naohiro Ukawa





A jack of all trades and master at none, however, Naohiro Ukawa is an exception. His art combines sensuality of deep house, the experimentation of techno, the chaos of noise and the stylish cool of punk. Check some of Ukawa's videos here (Ukawa's Second from top marked with * for FinalExam).

Saturday, April 20, 2013

Friday, April 5, 2013

Friday, March 29, 2013

it's your turn

Roman Cieslewicz, Katastrofa, 1961

Saturday, March 23, 2013

it's your turn

Rodchenko's photomontage of Mayakovsky (1923)

Thursday, March 21, 2013

Gertrude Stein reading!


Digital advertising is 20!

Re-imagining advertising:


Jan van Krimpen

Above, Jan van Krimpen's pages from Deirdre and the Sons of Usnach, by Roland Holst, Paladiun Series, 1920. Van Krimpen received an art education at the academy of art at The Hague. An early interest in poetry led him in 1917 to publish the poetic works of his friends in a series for which he designed the format. He received a commission from the Dutch post office to draw the lettering for a special commemorative stamp to be printed by the prominent firm of Enschedé in 1923. The success of the design led Enschedé to invite him to design a new typeface for the firm.

The typeface he produced, Lutetia (the Roman name for Paris), was the official lettering for an exhibition of Dutch art in Paris in 1927, and its reception led to his lifelong association with the firm. In addition to Lutetia, van Krimpen's well-known faces include Antigone Greek (1927), Romanée (1928), Romulus (1931), Cancelleresca Bastarda (1935), and Spectrum (1943).

His types became well known in the United States through the Limited Editions Club and in England through the Nonesuch Press.

Friday, March 1, 2013

if you have any questions about the midterm

Aida, 1915 by Marcelo Dudovich
post them here.

at the suggestion of a diligent student as to whether you should know the full name of an artist, my answer was: "of course." writing "morris" instead of "william morris" doesn't make any sense (there are thousands of morrises in england). sure, there are household names like gutenberg or picasso, but that isn't generally the norm.

Thursday, February 28, 2013

Designing decadence

Egan Beresford, Flowers of Evil

It's difficult to grasp decadence without this provisional list of books and characters.

The Master:
Charles Baudelaire, Fleurs du Mal, (bilingual translation)

Pleasure & deviations:
Oscar Wilde, Portrait of Dorian Gray,
Andre Gide, The Immoralist,
Leopold Sacher Masoch, Venus in Furs,

Preciousness, snobism:
Thomas Mann, Death in Venice,
J. K. Huysmans, Against the Grain, 
Théophile Gautier, Mademoiselle Maupin,

Evil:
Henry James, The Turn of the Screw,
George de Maurier, Trilby,

Hysteria, phobia, ennui, pain:
Leo Tolstoi, Anna Karenina,
Dostoevsky, Notes from the Underground,
Franz Kafka, The Trial,

Monsters:
Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis,

Dreams:
Sygmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams,

Artists:
Aubrey Beardsley, (illustrator)
Egan Beresford, (illustration)
Gustave Moreau, (painter)
Fernand Khnopff, (painter)
Gustav Klimt, (painter)
Rodolphe Bresdin, (engraver, illustrator)
Alfred Kubin, (illustrator)

Wednesday, February 20, 2013

to keep in mind

in my syllabus (on course contents and grades):  

Post comments amount to 25% of the final grade. 

Sunday, February 10, 2013

your turn #4

honoré de balzac, photo by nadar

Thursday, January 31, 2013

what is the dynamic between typeface and layout (grid)?

reinassance, dante's inferno

carl linnaeus, systema naturae, 1758

since the aesthetic effect of letterforms depends, in part of layout?

Friday, January 25, 2013

your turn #2

 marija tiurina's egg soldier @ juxtapoz

incunabula, gutenberg, gothic typeface, lower vs capitals,  imagines morti, the big star designers (plantin, manutius, ratdolt,  tory). then we discussed the types of the renaissance: tory and manutius' "new" roman, the bembo, the garamond, the bastarda. (we'll come back to tyndale's bible, maps and vesalius next week).

what's your take?

Thursday, January 24, 2013

Erhardt Ratdolt's Euclid's Elements of Geometry


Erhardt Ratdolt's Euclid's Elements of Geometry (1482), a dazzling white-on-black design brackets the text, and incredible fine line diagrams in the wide margin visually define Euclid's terms.This is an interesting page on Ratdolt. Here the borders and initials are used as design elements. Pictor (Bernard Mahler) is supposed to be the designer. But ornamentation aside, Ratdolt is still aware that geometry is the main design here. 

Friday, January 18, 2013

your turn #1


nice class! for my first lecture i tried to present "design" as a more comprehensive way of life. we need to revise our preconceptions and start looking at these "samples" from the past not as archaic, worn-out objects, but instead as wonderful examples of how we design our lives. 

by the way, read the last posts, from "decretals" on, which i didn't cover.

remember, your comment (150 word minimum) can deal with any theme covered in my lecture. you can comment using your google id, but remember to "sign" at the bottom of your comment. if you post anonymously (without an id) you should sign your name as well.

advice: it's better to write your comment in a "word" file, save it and then just cut and paste it on the comment box when you're ready to post. in case something could happen while trying to post and you end up loosing your comment after having invested time and effort.

go ahead!