Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Your turn #5

List of concepts Midterm, Fall 2017

Incunabulum: Is a book, pamphlet, or broadside, that was printed — not handwritten — before the year 1501 in Europe.
Moveable type: Movable type is the system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation).
Typography: is the art and technique of arranging type, type design, and modifying type glyphs. Type glyphs are created and modified using a variety of illustration techniques, such as typefaces, point size, line length, line spacing, adjusting spaces between groups of letters, etc. 
Linotype machine: The Linotype typesetting machine is a line casting machine used in printing, which produces an entire line of metal type at once. The machine revolutionized typesetting and newspaper publishing, making it possible for a relatively small number of operators to set type for many pages on a daily basis. 
Camera obscura: is an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings on a screen. It is used in drawing and for entertainment, and was one of the inventions that led to photography.
Daguerrotype: The daguerreotype is the first publicly announced photographic process. It was developed by Louis Daguerre together with Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. Niépce had produced the first photographic image in the camera obscura using asphaltum on a copper plate sensitized with lavender oil that required very long exposures.
Pictorialism: is the name given to a photographic movement in vogue from around 1885 following the widespread introduction of the dry-plate process. It reached its height in the early years of the 20th century, and declined rapidly after 1914 after the widespread emergence of Modernism.
Chromolithography: A very popular method for making multi-color prints during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. This type of color printing stemmed from the process of lithography, and it includes all types of lithography that are printed in color.
Arts and Crafts Movement: An international design movement that originated in England and flourished between 1880s and 1920s, as a reaction against the impoverished state of the decorative arts and the conditions under which they were produced. It was Instigated by artist and writer William Morris in the 1860s and inspired by the writings of John Ruskin.
The Kelmscot Press: Perhaps the most famous of the private presses, William Morris established the Kelmscott Press at Hammersmith in January 1891. Between then and 1898, the press produced 53 books (totaling some 18,000 copies).
Symbolism : A late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the movement had its roots in Les Fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil, 1857) by Charles Baudelaire and the aesthetic developed by Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s.
Art Nouveau: An international movement and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that peaked in popularity at the turn of the 20th century (1890–1905). Art Nouveau is also known as Jugendstil ("youth style"). A reaction to academic art of the 19th century, Art Nouveau is characterized by organic, especially floral and other plant-inspired motifs, as well as highly stylized, flowing curvilinear forms.
The Yellow Book: It was a quarterly literary periodical and a leading journal of the British 1890s; to some degree associated with Aestheticism and Decadence, the magazine contained a wide range of literary and artistic genres, poetry, short stories, essays, book illustrations, portraits, and reproductions of paintings.
Futurism: An avant-garde movement initiated by poet Filippo Marinetti. Futurism defends speed, technology and violence (favorite symbols are the car, the plane and the industrial town). Futurists represented the technological triumph of people over nature. Graphic artists: Fortunato Depero and Giacomo Balla.
Dada: Nihilistic movement in the arts that flourished in Zürich, New York City, Berlin, Cologne, Paris, and Hannover, Germany from 1917-1923. Dada defends a nihilistic, antirationalistic attitude. Dada artists concentrated on anti-war propaganda through activities, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals. Graphic artists: John Heartfield, Raoul Haussman, Hannah Höch.
Constructivism: An artistic and architectural movement in Russia from 1919 onward (especially present after the October Revolution) which dismissed "pure" art in favor of a highly formal almost abstract art used as an instrument for the construction of a socialist system. Graphic artists: Alexander Rodchenko, El Lissitzky, Gustav Klutsis and Valentina Kugalina.
Die Neue Tipographie:(Modern typography)A modern, universal method of communication developed by Lissitzky, Tschichold & Maholy Nagy & BAUHAUS in the 1920's.DNT's main contributions are: 1- rationality, 2- sans-serif typeface, 3- simplicity & legibility, asymmetric layout, photo-montage. Form dictates function. 

List of Images for Midterm, Fall 2017

1- Gutenberg, Bible (1450-55). Perhaps the best book ever published. Superb typographic legibility and texture, generous margins, excellent press-work.

2- The Nuremberg Chronicle (1493). One of the best documented early printed books (being printed in 1493, this is an incunabulum).

3- Erhardt Ratdolt, Euclid’s Elements of Geometry (1482) A dazzling white-on-black design brackets the text, and incredibly fine line diagrams in the wide margin visually define Euclid’s terms.

4- Hans Holbein’s Imagines Morti (The Dance of Death, 1538). 

5- Cristophe Plantin, Biblia Polyglotta (1569-1572). The polyglot Bible (double page format, with two vertical columns over a wide horizontal column, contained the Hebrew, Aramaic, Latin, Greek and Syriac translations of the Bible) was a prestige project. It was produced in a tempo that seems incredible today. The typesetting began in 1569 and the edition was completed in 1572.

6- Giambattista Bodoni’s Epithalamia Exoticis Linguis Reddita, (1775). Bodoni was an admirer of the types of John Baskerville. He evolved a style of type called '"New Face," in which the letters are cut in such a way as to produce a strong contrast between the thick and thin parts of their body.
7- John Dunlop Declaration of Independence (using Caslon typeface), 1777. Caslon's typefaces established a strong reputation for their legibility quality and elegance, particularly for extended passages of text.

8- Pencil of Nature (1844) – William Henry Fox Talbot: The first book to be illustrated entirely with photographs had original prints mounted onto the printed page.

9- Felix Nadar, Portrait of Charles Baudelaire, 1850s. Nadar's photographs have come to characterize  mid 19th-Century French culture.   

10- Owen Jones.The Grammar of Ornament, (1856). Jones expanded his propositions to create 37 “general principles in the arrangement of form and color in architecture and the decorative arts.” 

11- Walter Crane. Railroad Alphabet, 1865. Crane was a book Illustrator, and a textile, card and calendar designer. A friend and follower of William Morris, Crane is one of the most representative figures of the Arts and Crafts movement.

12- Charles Dana Gibson’ Have a Book in case you are Bored (1912) -- Charles Dana Gibson (September 14, 1867–December 23, 1944) was an American graphic artist, noted for his creation of the "Gibson Girl", an iconic representation of the beautiful and independent American woman at the turn of the 20th Century.

13- Howard Pyle's Marooned Pirate (1887). One of the best American illustrators of the 19th century. He illustrated primarily books for young people. 

14- Ford Madox Brown's Work (1852-1965) took over twelve years to produce, and despite the fact that he was never considered a true member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, it made an important contribution to the movement. Brown created a social realist painting utilizing a composition crowded with figures that represented the different classes of workers in Victorian society in different acts of labor.

15- A.H. Mackmurdo's Chair (1880's). Mackmurdo was a progressive English architect and designer, who influenced the Arts and Crafts Movement, notably through the Century Guild of Artists, which he set up in partnership with Selwyn Image in 1882. He was educated at Felsted School.

16- John Everett Millais' Christ in the House of His Parents (1850). Millais' Christ In The House Of His Parents (1850) was highly controversial because of its realistic portrayal of a working class Holy Family labouring in a messy carpentry workshop. It became an important work of Pre-Raphaelite aesthetics.

17- Thomas Nast, The American River Ganges (1871, for Harper’s Weekly). Nast drew his images directly on the woodblock in reverse for the craftsman to cut. His deep social and political concerns led him to strip away detail and introduce symbols and labels to communicate effectiveness.

18- William Morris, The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer (1896). A system of types, initials, borders, and illustrations were combined to create the dazzling Kelmscott style.

19-Lucien and Esther Pissarro, Ishtar’s Descent to the Nether World, (1903). Image color, and ornament combine to generate an intense expressionistic energy.

20-Jules Chéret, Le Pays des Fées Universal Exposition (1889), poster. Chéret became the most famous designer of Belle Époque poster art. Before Chéret, females had previously been depicted in art as prostitutes or puritans. Chéret's girls, joyous, elegant and lively, were known as "Cherettes." 

21- The Eyes of Eros – Aubrey Beardsley (1895), Art Nouveau, Aestheticism: The image shows Beardsley's ability to compose emotional contour line, textured areas and black and red shapes into powerful compositions.

22- Alphonse Mucha, Gismonda (1894). The life size figure, mosaic patterns, and elongated shape created an overnight sensation. Mucha's depiction of women, known as femme nouvelle, celebrated femininity in a time of technological anonymity. 

23- Henry van de Velde, Poster for Tropon Food Concentrate (1899). This swirling configuration, which may have been inspired by the separation of egg yolks from egg whites, embodies the Nouveau structure.

24- Jan Toorop, Psyche (1898). A symbolic, tragic and erotic fairy tale. As depicted on the binding, Chimera eventually became reality and in Psyche's death carried her through the wind and stars to the land of her dreams.

25- The Chap Book (1895). Will Bradley's poster. The repetition of a figure in smaller size, overlapping the larger figure enabled Bradley to create a complex set of visual relationships.
26- Poster for Campari (1901). Marcello Dudovich. The message is unambiguous as Dudovich equates sensual pleasure with that derived from Bitter Campari.

27- Rajah Coffee Poster (1899). Privat Livemont. The steam from the coffe pot and the product name are intertwined in a fascinating interplay of forms.

28- Beggarstaff, Corn Flour Kassama. Lithograph from "Les Maitre de L'Affiches" series. Paris, 1900. The Beggarstaffs used a stylised simplification of shape, and a handling of perspective and picture space which had had no precedent in British art. 

29- Peter Behrens, The Kiss, (circa 1900). A six color woodcut controversial for its androgynous imagery, Behrens' piece was first reproduced in Pan Magazine.

30- Josef Hoffman's Stoclet Palace. Vienna Secession. In 1904, Adolphe Stoclet and his wife Suzanne commissioned Austrian architect and designer Joseph Hoffman to build and fully furnish a house and garden. Hoffman conceived a total architectural integration of architecture, art, and craft, which makes the building an example of Gesamtkunstwerk.

31- Victor Horta's Museum, in Horta's former house and atelier, in Brussels, 1898. The style is characterised by the diffusion of light, and the brilliant joining of the curved lines of decoration with the structure of the building. For many Horta is the key European Nouveau architect.

32- Selywn Image's The Century Guild Hobby Horse, 1886. Arts & Crafts. The Hobby Horse was "the harbinger of the growing Arts & Crafts interest in typography, graphic design, and printing." [6] The Hobby Horse helped set the blueprints for how art is seen today. The contributors majorly attributed to the Arts & Crafts Movement- which influenced almost all art forms at the time. The design of the era incorporated simple motifs to express a more dynamic product. Through this, print design became recognized as a fine art status.

33- Gustav Doré's The Divine Comedy, 1867. A pritnmaker, painter and sculptor, Doré was one of the most important illustrators of the 19th century.

34- Margaret MacDonald's The White Cockade Tea Room Menu, 1911. Arts & Crafts. 

35- Egon Schiele, 49th Secession Exhibition, Poster, (1918). Vienna Secession. Schiele appears as a Christ-like figure at the head of a table of friends, a number of whom have the tonsures of monks. Beyond its collegiate message, the print impresses as a formal arrangement of stark reductivity.

36- Charles Mackintosh and Margaret MacDonald, House, 1906. Example of Gesamtkunstwerk. Each room presented a different, unified color scheme, with furniture, light fixtures, wall paintings conceived by the couple.

37- Karl Schmidt Rottluff, Head of Christ, (1918). Referred to as one of the most powerful prints of the twentieth century. W. R. Valentiner describes it as "a frightful vision on which is marked the terror of the German people... one eye is closed in pain; the other, open wide in prophecy: therefrom pierce glances of sorrow and oppression. The caption reminds us that in 1918 "Christ did not appear to you."

38- Fortunato Depero, Subway Poster, (1929). Depero, perhaps the most talented Futurist graphic designer, uses free-hand to express movement, noise and cacophony, the Futurist dynamics of the subway. 

39- Jan Tschichold, The Woman Without a Name, 1927, film poster for the Phoebus-Palast cinema, Munich.  The Munich Phoebus-Palast was the largest cinema in Germany, seating 2,174 people. In the poster, the photomontage evoke a sense of the film's unfolding narrative and the mechanics of cinematic projection. Tschichold's dynamic composition imaginatively carries the train forward, bursting through a flat red circle toward the audience.

40- Otto Dix, War Cripples 45% Fit for Service, 1920, New Objectivity.The New Objectivity (in German: Neue Sachlichkeit). A German movement in art, music, literature, architecture, etc against expressionism. Artists included Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, and George Grosz.

41- The AEG turbine factory was built around 1909. Werkbund. It is an influential and well-known example of Werkbund industrial architecture. Its revolutionary design features 100m long and 15m tall glass and steel walls on either side.

42- Ed Lissitzky, Lenin Tribune, 1922. The inclined gyrating platform combines the new geometry and movement typical of Constructivist utopia.

43- John Heartfield, Adolf, The Superman, Swallows Gold and Spouts Tin, poster, 1932. Dada.
Heartfield, a master of political poster denounces the large contributions that wealthy German industrialists were making to the Nazi party.

44- Otto, Baumberger, Who Is Counting On The Globe, 1934. The genre known as "Plakatstil" conveys a commercial message with a flatness, simplicity and reduction which abstracts image and lettering elements for an increasingly striking synthesis.

45- Aleksandr Rodchenko, Shukhov Transmission Tower, 1919. Rodchenko captures this landmark of Russia and the angle at which the photo is taken adds to its amazing design. Rodchenko expressed photography through taking shots from many angles rather than regular ones.

Thursday, February 12, 2009

Regarding links

Syntax for links here.

Henri de Toulouse Lautrec

Examples of Henri de Toulouse Lautrec's poster art. Check this Website of the San Diego Art Museum on "Paris & Printmaking."