Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Your turn #5

List of concepts Midterm, Fall 2016

Aestheticism: A 19th century European design style that emphasized aesthetic values more than socio-political themes for literature, fine art, the decorative arts, and interior design. It was a feature of the late-19th century from about 1868 to about 1900.
Incunabulum: Is a book, pamphlet, or broadside, that was printed — not handwritten — before the year 1501 in Europe.
Moveable type: Movable type is the system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation).
Typography: is the art and technique of arranging type, type design, and modifying type glyphs. Type glyphs are created and modified using a variety of illustration techniques including typefaces, point size, line length, leading (line spacing), adjusting the spaces between groups of letters (tracking) and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning).
Linotype machine: The Linotype typesetting machine is a "line casting" machine used in printing. The name of the machine comes from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once, hence a line-o'-type, a significant improvement over manual typesetting.The machine revolutionized typesetting and with it especially newspaper publishing, making it possible for a relatively small number of operators to set type for many pages on a daily basis. Before Mergenthaler's invention of the Linotype in 1884, no newspaper in the world had more than eight pages.
Camera obscura: (Latin; "camera" is a "vaulted chamber/room" + "obscura" means "dark"= "darkened chamber/room") is an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings on a screen. It is used in drawing and for entertainment, and was one of the inventions that led to photography.
Daguerrotype: The daguerreotype (pronounced /dəˈɡɛrətaɪp/; original French: daguerréotype) was the first publicly announced photographic process. It was developed by Louis Daguerre together with Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. Niepce had produced the first photographic image in the camera obscura using asphaltum on a copper plate sensitised with lavender oil that required very long exposures.
Pictorialism: Pictorialism is the name given to a photographic movement in vogue from around 1885 following the widespread introduction of the dry-plate process. It reached its height in the early years of the 20th century, and declined rapidly after 1914 after the widespread emergence of Modernism. The terms "Pictorialism" and "Pictorialist" entered common use only after 1900.
Chromolithography: A method for making multi-color prints. This type of color printing stemmed from the process of lithography, and it includes all types of lithography that are printed in color.
Harper’s Magazine: Launched as Harper's New Monthly Magazine in June 1850, by the New York City publisher Harper & Brothers; who also founded Harper's Bazaar magazine, later growing to become HarperCollins Publishing. The first press run, of 7,500 copies, sold out almost immediately; circulation was some 50,000 issues six months later.
Arts and Crafts Movement: An international design movement that originated in England and flourished between 1880 and 1910, continuing its influence up to the 1930s. Instigated by the artist and writer William Morris (1834–1896) in the 1860s and inspired by the writings of John Ruskin (1819–1900), it had its earliest and fullest development in England and  spread to Europe and North America as a reaction against the impoverished state of the decorative arts and the conditions under which they were produced.
The Kelmscot Press: Perhaps the most famous of the private presses, William Morris established the Kelmscott Press at Hammersmith in January 1891. Between then and 1898, the press produced 53 books (totalling some 18,000 copies).
Symbolism : A late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the movement had its roots in Les Fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil, 1857) by Charles Baudelaire and the aesthetic developed by Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and '70s.
Jugend Magazine: A German art magazine that was created in the late 19th century. It featured many famous Art Nouveau artists and is the source for the German Art Nouveau term "jugendstil" ("Youth Style").
Art Nouveau: An international movement and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that peaked in popularity at the turn of the 20th century (1890–1905). The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art". It is also known as Jugendstil, German for "youth style", named after the magazine Jugend, which promoted it, and in Italy, Stile Liberty from the department store in London, Liberty & Co., which popularised the style. A reaction to academic art of the 19th century, it is characterized by organic, especially floral and other plant-inspired motifs, as well as highly stylized, flowing curvilinear forms.
Maîtres de l'Affiche: It refers to 256 color lithographic plates used to create a very significant art publication during the Belle Époque in Paris, France between (1995-1900). The collection, reproduced from the original works of ninety-seven artists in a smaller 11 x 15 inch format, was put together by Jules Chéret, the father of poster art.
The Yellow Book: Published in London from 1894 to 1897 by Elkin Mathews and John Lane, later by John Lane alone, and edited by the American Henry Harland, it was a quarterly literary periodical (priced at 5s.) that lent its name to the "Yellow" 1890s. It was a leading journal of the British 1890s; to some degree associated with Aestheticism and Decadence, the magazine contained a wide range of literary and artistic genres, poetry, short stories, essays, book illustrations, portraits, and reproductions of paintings. Aubrey Beardsley was its first art editor.

List of Images for Midterm, Fall 2016

1- Bible -- Gutenberg (1450-55): Superb typographic legibility and texture, generous margins, excellent press-work.

2- The Nuremberg Chronicle -- One of the best documented early printed books (and, being printed in 1493, an incunabulum).

3- Aldus Manutius’
Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (Venice, 1499) -- Considered the first "modern book", composed of Roman characters (and Greek), illustrated in black and white. Hypnerotomachia is considered by some as one of the most beautiful books ever published.

4- Champfleury (1529) -- Geoffry Tory: A set of borders component, filled with animal motifs, combined and recombined through the book. The open line quality facilitates the application of color by hand.

5- Euclid’s Elements of Geometry (1482) -- Erhardt Ratdolt: A dazzling white-on-black design brackets the text, and incredibly fine line diagrams in the wide margin visually define Euclid’s terms.
6- Hans Holbein’s Imagines Morti (The Dance of Death, 1538). 

7- Biblia Polyglotta (1569-1572) – Cristophe Plantin: The polyglot Bible (double page format, with two vertical columns over a wide horizontal column, contained the Hebrew, Aramaic, Latin, Greek and Syriac translations of the Bible) was a prestige project. It was produced in a tempo that seems incredible today. The typesetting began in 1569 and the edition was completed in 1572.

8- Fra Mauro's World Map (1450)-- This map by Venetian monk Fra Mauro is one of the greatest memorials of medieval cartography.

9- Giambattista Bodoni’s Epithalamia Exoticis Linguis Reddita, (1775). Bodoni was an admirer of the types of John Baskerville. He evolved a style of type called '"New Face," in which the letters are cut in such a way as to produce a strong contrast between the thick and thin parts of their body.
10- William Caslon, A Specimen of Printing Types (1785). The distinction and legibility of his type secured him the patronage of the leading printers of the day in England and on the continent

11- Pencil of Nature (1844) – William Henry Fox Talbot: The first book to be illustrated entirely with photographs had original prints mounted onto the printed page.

12- Paul Nadar, Portrait of Sarah Bernhardt (mid 1800's).

13- Owen Jones’ The Grammar of Ornament, (1856) -- Jones expanded his propositions to create 37 “general principles in the arrangement of form and colour in architecture and the decorative arts” which became the preface to the 20 chapters of The Grammar of Ornament.

14- Krebs Lithographing Co.: Tobacco ad and a poster for Cincinnati's 9th Exposition of Art and Industry (1881).

15- Walter Crane’s Railroad Alphabet, 1865 -- Book Illustrator, textile, card and calendar designer. Apprenticed to a London wood engraving firm, subsequently forming a successful partnership with the printer, Edmund Evans. Shared William Morris's artistic and political beliefs.

16- Charles Dana Gibson’ Have a Book in case you are Bored (1912) -- Charles Dana Gibson (September 14, 1867–December 23, 1944) was an American graphic artist, noted for his creation of the "Gibson Girl", an iconic representation of the beautiful and independent American woman at the turn of the 20th Century.

17- Howard Pyle's Marooned Pirate (1887). One of the best American illustrators of the 19th century. He illustrated primarily books for young people. 

18- Ford Madox Brown's Work (1852-1965) took over twelve years to produce, and despite the fact that he was never considered a true member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, it made an important contribution to the movement. Brown created a social realist painting utilizing a composition crowded with figures that represented the different classes of workers in Victorian society in different acts of labor.

19- A.H. Mackmurdo's Chair (1880's). Mackmurdo was a progressive English architect and designer, who influenced the Arts and Crafts Movement, notably through the Century Guild of Artists, which he set up in partnership with Selwyn Image in 1882. He was educated at Felsted School.

20- Jan van Krimpen's pages from Deirdre and the Sons of Usnach, by Roland Holst, Paladiun Series, 1920 -- Jan van Krimpen (Gouda, Feb 12, 1892 – Haarlem, Oct 20, 1958) was a Dutch typographer and type designer. 

21- Saturday evening Post: Illustration of Otto von Bismarck by George Gibbs -- The Saturday Evening Post launched onto the American scene in 1821 as a four-page newspaper and eventually became the most widely circulated weekly magazine in the world. The magazine gained prominent status under the leadership of its longtime editor George Horace Lorimer (1899-1937).

22- John Everett Millais' Christ in the House of His Parents (1850) -- Millais' Christ In The House Of His Parents (1850) was highly controversial because of its realistic portrayal of a working class Holy Family labouring in a messy carpentry workshop. Later works were also controversial, though less so. Millais achieved popular success with A Huguenot (1852), which depicts a young couple about to be separated because of religious conflicts. He repeated this theme in many later works.

23- The American River Ganges (1871, for Harper’s Weekly) – Thomas Nast: He drew his images directly on the woodblock in reverse for the craftsman to cut. His deep social and political concerns led him to strip away detail and introduce symbols and labels to communicate effectiveness.

24- The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer (1896) – William Morris: A system of types, initials, borders, and illustrations were combined to create the dazzling Kelmscott style.

25- Ishtar’s Descent to the Nether World (1903) – Lucien and Esther Pissarro: Image color, and ornament combine to generate an intense expressionistic energy.

26- Le Pays des Fées Universal Exposition (1889) -- Poster art by Jules Chéret (1836-1932).

27- Eugene Grasset, Three women and Three Wolves (1890's)

28- The Eyes of Eros – Aubrey Beardsley (1895), Art Nouveau, Aestheticism: The image shows Beardsley's ability to compose emotional contour line, textured areas and black and red shapes into powerful compositions.

29- Gismonda (1894) – Alphonse Mucha: The life size figure, mosaic patterns, and elongated shape created an overnight sensation.

30- Poster for Tropon Food Concentrate (1899) -- Henry van de Velde: This swirling configuration may have been inspired by the separation of egg yolks from egg whites.

31- Psyche (1898) -- Jan Toorop. A symbolic, tragic and erotic fairy tale. As depicted on the binding, Chimera eventually became reality and in Psyche's death carried her through the wind and stars to the land of her dreams.

32- The Chap Book (1895). Will Bradley's poster. The repetition of a figure in smaller size, overlapping the larger figure enabled Bradley to create a complex set of visual relationships.
33- Poster for Campari (1901). Marcello Dudovich. The message is unambiguous as Dudovich equates sensual pleasure with that derived from Bitter Campari.

34- Rajah Coffee Poster (1899). Privat Livemont. The steam from the coffe pot and the product name are intertwined in a fascinating interplay of forms.

35- Beggarstaff, Corn Flour Kassama. Lithograph from "Les Maitre de L'Affiches" series. Paris, 1900. The Beggarstaffs used a stylised simplification of shape, and a handling of perspective and picture space which had had no precedent in British art. 

36- Peter Behrens, The Kiss, (circa 1900). A six color woodcut controversial for its androgynous imagery, Behrens' piece was first reproduced in Pan Magazine.

37- Frantisec Kupka, Defiance, Black Idol, 1900-1903. Kupka illustrated books and posters and, during his early years in Paris, became known for his satirical drawings for newspapers and magazines.

38- Josef Hoffman's Stoclet Palace. In 1904, Adolphe Stoclet and his wife Suzanne commissioned Austrian architect and designer Joseph Hoffman to build and fully furnish a house and garden. Hoffman conceived a total architectural integration of architecture, art, and craft, which makes the building an example of Gesamtkunstwerk, one of the defining characteristics of Jugendstil.

39- Victor Horta's Museum, in Horta's former house and atelier, in Brussels, 1898. For many Horta is the key European Nouveau architect.

40-  Jan Delville, The Treasures of Satan, 1895.

41- Rudolph Koch (1876-1934), Neuland, one of Koch's best known typefaces.

42- Selywn Image's The Century Guild Hobby Horse, 1886.

43- Gustav Doré's The Divine Comedy, 1867. A pritnmaker, painter and sculptor, Doré was one of the most important illustrators of the 19th century.

44- Margaret MacDonald's The White Cockade Tea Room Menu, 1911.

Thursday, February 12, 2009

Regarding links

Syntax for links here.

Henri de Toulouse Lautrec

Examples of Henri de Toulouse Lautrec's poster art. Check this Website of the San Diego Art Museum on "Paris & Printmaking."